Included in the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 U.S. censuses were mortality schedules that asked questions regarding those who died in the twelve months prior to the enumeration. 1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals SCHEDULE 1.-INHABITANTS. Some content on this site is available in several different electronic formats. You can search by last name, first name, or dwelling number. So long as the family name remains the same for the several mem­ bers it need not be repeated, provided a clear horizontal  line be drawn in the place it would occupy, thus:Â, Place of abode.—By ‘‘place of abode’’ is meant the  house or usual lodging place. The period of enumeration is by law limited to the month of June, and in cities having 10,000 inhabitants and over, according to the census of 1870, is still further limited to the first two weeks of June. As part of the Johnston County Heritage Center's Research Databases Project, we are happy to provide you with the 1870 census records from Johnston County. Indians out of their tribal relations, and exercising the rights of citizens under state or Territorial laws, will be included. Hotels,  poorhouses, garrisons, asylums, jails, and similar estab­ lishments, where the inmates live habitually under a single  roof, are to be regarded as single dwelling houses for the  purpose of the census. Decennial and the American Community Survey (ACS), Local Update of Census Addresses Operation (LUCA), Participant Statistical Areas Program (PSAP), Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), Decennial Census Questionnaires & Instructions, Decennial Census of Population and Housing, Download 1870 Instructions to Assistant Marshals [PDF - 1.9 MB], Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000. The United State Census of 1870, conducted during June 1870, determined the population to be 38,555,983 - an increase of 22.62 percent since the 1860 Census. The name of the father, mother, or other osten­ sible head of the family (in the case of hotels, jails, etc.,  the landlord, jailor, etc.) Each head of family was listed and asked: The number of free White males and females, respectively: - under 5 years - 5 to 10 years - 10 to 15 years - 15 to 20 years - 20 to 30 years - 30 to 40 years In regard to all  persons above that age, children or adults, male and  female, the information will be obtained. The Census of Manitoba, 1870 was compiled by order of visitation and the records are organized by parish. 8 marks total. The value meant is the full market value, known or estimated. If born within the United  States, the State or Territory will be named, whether it be  the State or Territory in which the person is at present  residing or not. The 1870 census will provide you the district, township, and county of your ancestor. Upon the answers to the questions under this head will depend the distribution of representative power in the General Government. The excerpted section concerns voting rights. Instructions for Assistant Marshalls Preparing the 1870 US census (There were 28 pages,so I summarized the more interesting ones….) The instructions to enumerators for conducting the 1870 census are essentially the same as those for the 1860 census. Deaf and dumb, Blind, Insane, or Idiotic.— Great care will  be taken in performing this work of enumeration, so as at once to secure completeness and avoid giving offense.  Total blindness and undoubted insanity only are intended  in this inquiry. Be particularly careful in  reporting the class  Mulatto.  The word is here generic, and  includes quadroons, octoroons, and all persons having  any perceptible trace of African blood. Property.— Column 8 will contain the value of all real  estate owned by the person enumerated, without any  deduction on account of mortgage or other encumbrance,  whether within or without the census subdivision or the county. No return  will be accepted when these spaces are left blank.Â, Ages.— The exact age, in figures, will be inserted in col­ umn 4, wherever the same can be obtained; otherwise, the  nearest approximation thereto. of males, foreign born. Enumerators of the 1870 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. Measuring America's People, Places, and Economy. U.S. Federal Census Collection. ‘‘Personal estate,’’ column 9, is to be inclusive of all bonds,  stocks, mortgages, notes, live stock, plate, jewels, or fur­ niture, but exclusive of wearing apparel. Generally, the house number will be on the page on the right side, near the top left part of that right page (i.e., near the top middle of the image showing two pages). For the NYC recount, you may be interested in Charles Sullivan, "The 1870 Federal Census for New York City," Nancy E. Lutz, The Brooklyn Genealogy Information Page (http://www.bklyn-genealogy-info.com/Census/1870/1870.CS.NYC.html : posted 13 July 2001). Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. No relationships were given in the census, instructions were provided to the census taker as … The 1840 census asked the same questions as the 1830 census. Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage. Under whatever cir­ cumstances, and in whatever numbers, people live  together under one roof, and are provided for at a com­ mon table, there is a family in the meaning of the law.Â, Names of individuals.— In column 3 will be entered the  name of every person in each family, of whatever age,  including the names of such as were temporarily absent  on the 1st day of June, 1870. Many persons never try to vote, and therefore do not know whether their right to vote is or is not abridged. Enumerators of the 1870 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. 1870 Federal Census Introduction and Instructions Tyrrell County, North Carolina Many thanks to Mike Schoettle for transcribing and formatting this census and to Kay Lynn Sheppard for providing a written transcription to work from. The inquiries con­ tained in columns 16 and 17 must be made separately.  Very many persons who will claim to be able to read,  though they really do so in the most defective manner, will  frankly admit that they can not write. The accuracy of the 1870 census was bitterly disputed by many jurisdictions who felt their population had been undercounted. One hundred and fifty supervisors of census have been, or will be… Each assistant will provide himself with a secure portable ink stand, good income and a sufficient number of pens. The character of such establish­ ments should be written longitudinally in the columns.Â, Eating houses, stores, shops, etc.— Very many persons,  especially in cities, have no other place of abode than  stores, shops, etc. The search screen enables you to search by name of person. In all other cases,  months will be omitted. Columns 4, 5, and 6 must, in every case, be filled with the  age, sex, or color of the person enumerated. Approximately 6,500 U.S. marshals received their instruction for enumerating the U.S. population from a May 23, 1850 authorizing the census - the same act authorizing the 1850 census and a May 6, 1870 act that canceled the collection of slave data. 2, and  the remaining spaces on the line be left blank. Agricultural Schedules . A total of 10 enumerators (one French-speaking and one English-speaking for each district) were appointed to coordinate the census and collect information for all people living in Manitoba (First Nations, Métis and white) according to their residence as of July 16, 1870. View Images in this Collection Browse through 1049047 images Citing this Collection The names of all free blacks were included in the 1850 and 1860 cens… Under the provisions of the act approved March 3, 1879, amended by the act approved April 20, 1880, a census of the population, wealth, and industry of the United States is to be taken on, or of the date, June 1, 1880. All entries will be carefully dried wit… It is a matter of more delicacy to obtain the information required by column 20. Manitoba joined Confederation on July 15, 1870 and a census took place in the following months. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Assistant Marshals will begin the enumeration of their subdivisions, June 1, and continue it without interruption till the work is complete. By 1850, the instructions start getting more specific. The age taken is the age at last  birthday.Â, Color.— It must not be assumed that, where nothing is  written in this column, ‘‘White’’ is to be understood. Homer J. Twitchell was the Assistant Marshall for the 4th Ward in Bienville Parish, Louisiana. There is a total number of marks in the column listed at the bottom. DATE OF ENUMERATION g-n n Country n Names Description Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each Male or Female 5. No report will be  made when the personal property is under $100. This is because the 1870 census images are shown two-at-a-time, and, therefore, smaller, and they are turned 90 degrees. Search Collection. Instead of writing ‘‘Great  Britain’’ as the place of birth, give the particular country,  as England, Scotland, Wales. Assistant Marshals will report progress to the Marshal regularly once a fortnight: failure to do so will be sufficient cause for removal. It is not only those whose votes have actually been challenged, and refused at the polls for some disability or want of qualification, who must be reported in this column; but all who come within the scope of any State law denying or abridging suffrage to any class or individual on any other ground than the par­ticipation in rebellion, or legal conviction of crime. Please follow the instructions below to perform your search. There are several different marks in this column, a slash, what looks like a y and what looks like an X. Instead of ‘‘Germany,’’ specify  the State, as Prussia, Baden, Bavaria, Wurttemburg, Hesse,  Darmstadt, etc. A  single person, living alone in a distinct part of a house,  may constitute a family; while, on the other hand, all the  inmates of a boarding house or a hotel will constitute but  a single family, though there may be among them many  husbands with wives and children. Numbering.-Dwelling houses and families will be numbered consecutively, in order as visited, until the township, borough, or parish (or ward of a city) is completed, when a new numbering will begin, as in the case with the numbering of pages. Every male person born within the United  States, who has attained the age of 21 years, is a citizen  of the United States by the force of the Fourteenth Amend­ment to the Constitution; also, all persons born out of the  limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers  at the time of their birth were citizens of the United States  (act of February 10,1855); also, all persons born out of the  limits and jurisdiction of the United States, who have been declared by judgment of court to have been duly natural­ized, having taken out both ‘‘papers.’’. If the person being enumerated had a father or mother of foreign birth; if he or she attended school during the year; if he or she cannot read or cannot write; if he is a citizen of the United States above the age of 21, and if, being such citizen, his right to vote is denied or abridged on other grounds than participation in rebellion or crime, then an affirmative mark, thus, (/), will be drawn in each of the above columns opposite the name.". The instructions for the 1870 census states:  "The inquiries in columns numbered 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19, and 20 are of such a nature that these columns only require to be filled when the answer to the inquiry is "Yes." But houses only temporarily uninhabited  are to be returned and numbered in order. The "Instructions to Enumerators" provided here include the congressional acts U.S. marshalls reviewed during the early census, specially-published instructions for door-to-door census, and lastly, guides used for the limited number of personal interviews conducted during nonresponse follow-up operations. 119) summarize the questions asked on each year’s form. In that case a  dash, thus (—), will be drawn through column No. This database is an index to several of these schedules. The Enumerator / Census Taker was referred to the Assistant Marshall in 1870. It is therefore imperative that this part of the enumeration should be performed with abso­lute accuracy. Ninth Census, United States Instructions to Assistant Marshalls (1870) Excerpts from the Digital Text found at the United States Census Bureau. Availability of U.S. This was the ninth census conducted since 1790. Download 1870 Instructions to Assistant Marshals [PDF - 1.9 MB] Numbering.— Dwelling houses and families will be num­ bered consecutively, in order as visited, until the town­ ship, borough, or parish (or ward or a city) is completed, when a new numbering will begin, as is the case with the numbering of pages. Instructions to enumerators and images of census forms for each year are included, and handy charts (starting on pg. For the 1870 census, clear instructions are given to the enumerators to be careful about using the word "mulatto" to describe the person's color. By selecting this link you will leave www.census.gov. Latest edition of QuickSheet: Citing Online Historical Resources. To assist with district and parish names, a list of districts and parishes for the Census of Manitoba, 1870 is included. Children, who, on the 1st of June,  1870, were less than a year old, will have their age stated  by the fractional part of the year, as (1 month) 1-12, (3  months) 3-12, (9 months) 9-12, etc. If of foreign birth, the country will be  named as specifically as possible. Elsewhere in New York state, we don't find those marks. On 1 June 1870, the Bureau of the Census began taking the 9th decennial census of the United States. This tells us that Census Bureau was making some special effort on the New York City returns. Census Instructions. It officially began on October 27, 1870. Instructions to the Assistant Marshall in 1870 tell how each family should be enumerated. The family name is to be written first in the column, and the full  first or characteristic  Christian or ‘‘given’’ name of each member of the family in order thereafter. * Enumerator instructions regarding columns 19 & 20 on the topic of Constitutional Relations is on the back of this page. The 1921 census will remain closed until it is made available online by Findmypast.co.uk in early 2022. To sign up for updates please enter your contact information below. The decennial census has always required a large workforce to visit and collect data from households. Please check the Privacy Policy of the site you are visiting. The name of any member of  the family who may have died between the 1st day of  June, 1870, and the day of the assistant marshal’s visit is  be entered, and the person fully described, as if living; but  the name of any person born during that period is to be  omitted. Intermission of work will be sufficient cause for removal. This pamphlet gave census takers directions for how to fill out the blanks on the census forms. Column 19 is Male Citizens of US of 21 years of age and upwards. The explanation for these added tally marks stems from the fact that there are two enumerations.  The accuracy of the 1870 census was bitterly disputed by many jurisdictions who felt their population had been undercounted. In 1870, a “family” was one or more individuals living in an abode. The part of the enumerator’s duty which relates to column 19 is therefore easy, but it is none the less of importance. https://www.archives.gov/research/census/microfilm-catalog/1790-1890/part-01 The instructions to enumerators were consistent with those used during the 1830 census. Spotchecks in other states do not show those marks, either. In 1870, the instructions for that census told the census takers: “Indians not taxed” are not to be enumerated on schedule 1. Establishing the Composition of a Family Individual names are provided. I am looking at a 1870 census record for Daniel Dorris in New York City. Recounts were made in three cities: New York City, Philadelphia, and Indianapolis. United States Census Bureau - Decennial Census by Decades - 1870. See the 1870 Overview at. All persons temporarily  absent on journey or visit are to be counted as of the  family; but children and youth absent for purposes of  education on the 1st of June, and having their home in  a family where the school or college is situated, will be  enumerated at the latter place.Â. Between 1790 to 1870, the duty of collecting census data fell upon the U.S. Census Day: 1 June 1870 Time to Complete: Five months U.S. Population: 38.6 million. A single person could be considered a separate family unit if they lived in a distinct part of the house. Description. For the 1870 census, finding the house number can be a little more difficult. These inquiries will  be asked of children under 10 years of age. What troubles me is the differences in the marks in the column. http://search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=7163&iid=4274938_00619&fn=Daniel&ln=Dorris&st=r&ssrc=&pid=29910728. Seafaring men are to be reported at their land homes, no  matter how long they may have been absent, if they are  supposed to be still alive. Hence, sailors temporarily at a  sailors’ boarding or lodging house,  if they acknowledge  any other home within the United States,  are not to be  included in the family of the lodging or boarding house.  Persons engaged in internal transportation, canal men,  expressmen, railroad men, etc., if they habitually return to  their home in the intervals of their occupation, will be  reported as of their families, and not where they may be  temporarily staying on the 1st of June. U.S., Federal Census Mortality Schedules Index, 1850-1880. It appears that three copies were required to be submitted by the Assistant Marshall. Only such buildings are to be reckoned as  dwelling houses as have been used as the entire habita­ tion of a family. In this case, if we run spot checks throughout the New York City returns, we find these particular tally marks used throughout most wards. The fact of idiocy will be  better determined by the common consent of the neigh­ borhood, than by attempting to apply any scientific mea­sure to the weakness of the mind or will. Some of the files may require a plug-in or additional software to view. Marshals. The below text is excerpted on pages 13 from Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000. Where the age is a matter  of considerable doubt, the assistant marshal may make a  note to that effect. 1850-1880: U.S. agricultural schedules are most widely available for research for the years 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880.In 1919 the Bureau of the Census transferred custody of the existing 1850–1880 agricultural and other non-population schedules to state repositories and, in cases where state officials declined to … In Census records, from 1790-1840, only names of the head of household were provided, along with the number of slaves and "free persons of color." 1870 Instructions. United States Census Bureau. People in the census The inquiries in columns numbered 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 19,  and 20 are of such a nature that these columns only  require to be filled when the answer to the inquiry is  ‘‘Yes.’’ If the person being enumerated had a father or  mother of foreign birth; if he or she attended school dur­ ing the year; if he or she can not read or can not write; if  he is a citizen of the United States above the age of 21  years, and if, being such citizen, his right to vote is denied  or abridged on other grounds than participation in rebel­ lion or other crime, then an affirmative mark, thus (/), will  be drawn in each of the above columns opposite the name. Added to this, enumerators were presented with printed instructions, which account for the greater degree of accuracy compared with earlier censuses. Enumerators visited five districts, divided into 34 parishes (the eq… The U.S. Census Bureau has made enumerator instructions (and much more) easily accessible in a 148 page downloadable PDF entitled Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses From 1790 to 2000. Careful inquiry will be made to  include this class and such buildings will be reckoned as  dwelling houses within the intention of the census law;  but a watchman, or clerk belonging to a family resident in  the same town or city, and sleeping in such store or shop  merely for purposes of security, will be enumerated as of  his family.Â, Families.—  By ‘‘family’’ (column 2) is meant one or more  persons living together and provided for in common. Another interesting tidbit found in the 1870 census instructions is how the category of “idiotic” (the census term for that time period) was determined. Please visit the Download Plug-In page for a full list. Even though the 1860 census schedule does not include "Indian" as a choice in the column heading for "Color," enumerators nevertheless followed the instructions cited in the previous paragraph and recorded more than 40,000 Indians. Marks such as these two (i.e., the small backward slashes added to the larger forward slashes and the dots placed under the forward slashes ) are typically "tally marks" added by Census Bureau officials after the marshals submit the returns. Name index and images of population schedules listing inhabitants of the United States in 1870. If I understand the column label and the instructions then Daniel was probably naturalized and had the right to vote. Unfortunately, the 1931 census for England and Wales was destroyed by fire in 1942, and no census was taken in 1941 because of the Second World War. 1870 Census 1870 Population Census Ninth Census of the United States General Note(s): The heading for "constitutional relations" in the schedule for the 1870 census does not refer to men who fought in or supported the Confederacy, but to former male slaves. Looking at a list of microfilmed returns for the city, we see another anomaly: there are two enumerations for all wards and all original districts (although there are extra districts on the second enumeration). Education.— It will not do to assume that, because a per­ son can read, he can, therefore, write. Recounts were made in three cities: New York City, Philadelphia, and Indianapolis. United States Census, 1870. The population was said to be 38,555,983 individuals, a 22.62% increase since 1860. In column 19 there is a mark. In 1850 and 1860, the Federal government took a supplemental slave census, giving the slave owner's name, and the number of slaves by gender, age, and a designation of black or mulatto. PAGE NUMBER 1870 FEDERAL CENSUS MICROFILM SERIES STATE COUNTY TOWN/TOWNSHIP P.O. Deafness merely, without the loss of  speech, is not to be reported. Instructions. Numbering.— Dwelling houses and families will be num­ bered consecutively, in order as visited, until the town­ ship, borough, or parish (or ward or a city) is completed,  when a new numbering will begin, as is the case with the  numbering of pages.Â, Dwelling houses.— By ‘‘dwelling house’’ is meant a house  standing alone, or separated by walls from other houses  in a block. ; places which are not primarily  intended for habitation. If we run spot checks in other counties that are today part of New York City (Kings, Queens, Richmond, and the Bronx), we don't find those marks. A March 3, 1879 act replaced the U.S. The United State Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census.Conducted by the Census Bureau in June 1870, the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the black population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. Enumerators of the 1870 census were instructed to record the names of every person in the household. The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census.It was … Also in the tabulation on the bottom is the number 8 for no. Search the 1870 Census Records. is to be entered first of the family. The instructions for 1820, 1830 & 1840 were longer but seem to talk in circles as to how to report a persons occupation. The  column is always to be filled. The search screen enables you to search by: Keywords; Surname At school.— It is not intended to include those whose edu­cation has been limited to Sunday or evening schools. 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